Before diving in to the Web Science Specification it may be useful to recap on common Network Components.
Node | A generic term for any device connected to a network, such as computers, phones, or printers. Client | A device that requests data or services from a server over a network. Workstation | A personal computer connected to a network used for professional or business purposes. NIC (Network Interface Card) | A hardware component that connects a computer or other device to a network. Switch | A networking device that connects devices on a computer network and uses packet switching to forward data to its destination. Bridge | A device that connects multiple network segments, operating at the data link layer of the OSI model. Access Point | A device that allows wireless devices to connect to a wired network using Wi-Fi. It differs from a router in that it does not route traffic between different networks, but only connects wireless devices to a local network. Cat 5/6 Copper Twisted Pair Cable | Cabling used to connect network devices. Cat 5/6 refers to the category of the cable, with higher numbers indicating higher performance. Server | A computer system that provides data or services to other computers (clients) over a network. Proxy Server | Acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers. It can provide additional security and caching services. Optical Cable | Uses light to transmit data at high speeds and over longer distances than copper cables. Cell Phone Tower | A site containing antennas and other electronic communications equipment, typically on a raised structure, used to facilitate cellular network communication. ISP (Internet Service Provider) | An organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Cloud Storage | A model of computer data storage where digital data is stored in logical pools across multiple servers and locations. Web Server | A server that stores website content and delivers it to users over the internet. HUB | A basic networking device that connects multiple computers or other network devices together, less sophisticated than a switch as it broadcasts data to all connected devices. Regional HUB| A central point in a network that serves as a conduit for data from many smaller hubs or spokes. DNS (Domain Name System) | Translates domain names to IP addresses, allowing browsers to load internet resources. Router | A networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. It routes traffic between different networks, unlike an access point which only connects devices to one network. Modem | A device that modulates and demodulates signals for communication over telephone lines. Firewall | A network security device that monitors and filters incoming and outgoing network traffic based on an organization's previously established security policies. Gateway | A node in a network that serves as an access point to another network, often used for connecting different network architectures. Repeater | A device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, or onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation.
NETWORKS WITH DIRECT FIBER OPTIC CABLE
When an optical cable is provided by an ISP (Internet Service Provider) to a network, the traditional modem used for copper wire (like DSL or cable) connections is not applicable. Instead, a different device known as an Optical Network Terminal (ONT) or an Optical Network Unit (ONU) is required.
Optical Cable | This is the fiber optic cable provided by the ISP. It's capable of carrying data at high speeds over long distances using light signals.
Optical Network Terminal (ONT) or Optical Network Unit (ONU) | This device is installed at the customer's premises and serves as the endpoint for the fiber optic cable. It converts the optical signals transmitted over the fiber into electrical signals that can be understood by your network devices. The ONT/ONU essentially performs a similar function to a modem in a traditional broadband setup.
Router | After the ONT/ONU, you would typically have a router. The router is responsible for distributing the internet connection to various devices in your home or office, either wirelessly (Wi-Fi) or through Ethernet cables. In some cases, the ONT/ONU and router functionalities are combined into a single device provided by the ISP.
In a fiber optic setup, the traditional modem is replaced by an ONT/ONU, which is essential for converting the optical signals to a form usable by standard networking equipment.