Primary memory (RAM): Primary memory is the memory that is directly accessible by the processor. It stores data and instructions that are currently being used by the computer. The amount of primary memory available on a computer determines the number of programs and amount of data that can be processed simultaneously.
Secondary storage (hard drive, SSD): Secondary storage is used to store data and programs that are not currently being used by the processor. It provides long-term storage for files and documents. The size of the secondary storage determines the amount of data that can be stored on the computer.
Processor speed: Processor speed refers to the number of operations the processor can perform per second. A faster processor speed means that more instructions can be executed in a shorter amount of time, resulting in faster overall performance.
Bandwidth: Bandwidth refers to the maximum amount of data that can be transferred over a network or an internet connection. A higher bandwidth means that data can be transferred more quickly, resulting in faster download and upload speeds.
Screen resolution: Screen resolution refers to the number of pixels on a display screen. A higher screen resolution means that the screen can display more detail, resulting in sharper and more detailed images.
Disk storage: Disk storage refers to the amount of storage space available on a hard drive or SSD. It determines the amount of data that can be stored on the computer.
Sound processor: The sound processor is responsible for producing and processing audio signals. It determines the quality of the sound that is produced by the computer.
Graphics processor: The graphics processor is responsible for rendering images and video on a computer. It determines the quality and speed of the visual display.
Cache: Cache is a type of memory that is used to store frequently accessed data and instructions. It can be accessed more quickly than primary memory, which can improve overall performance.
Network connectivity: Network connectivity refers to the ability of a computer to connect to a network, such as the internet or a local area network. It determines the ability of the computer to access network resources and communicate with other devices on the network.
3D graphics: Computer-generated images or animations that appear three-dimensional.
Multi-access programming environments: A programming environment that allows multiple users to work on the same program or project simultaneously.
Multi-programming environments: An operating system environment that allows multiple programs to run simultaneously on the same computer.
Operating system: The software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Managing memory: The process of allocating and managing memory resources for computer programs.
Peripherals: Devices that can be connected to a computer to enhance its functionality, such as a printer or a scanner.
Hardware interfaces: The physical connections and protocols that allow hardware devices to communicate with each other.
Time-slicing: A scheduling technique that allows multiple processes to share a single CPU by dividing the CPU time into slices.
Scheduling: The process of determining which programs or processes will run at what time on a computer.
Policies: Rules and guidelines that govern the behaviour of a computer system or its users.
Multitasking: The ability of an operating system to run multiple programs or processes simultaneously.
Virtual memory: A technique used by an operating system to enable a computer to use more memory than is physically available by temporarily transferring data from RAM to a hard disk.
Paging: A virtual memory management technique that divides memory into fixed-size blocks called pages.
Interrupt: A signal sent to a computer's CPU that temporarily stops the currently executing program or process to allow a higher-priority task to be performed.
Polling: A method used to check the status of a device or process by repeatedly sending requests for information.
Virtualize real devices: The process of creating a virtual version of a physical device, such as a network adapter or a hard drive.
Virtual drive letters: A mapping of a drive letter to a network share or other storage location.
Java virtual machine: A virtual machine that allows Java programs to run on different platforms without modification.