

TERMINOLOGY GLOSSARY
ABSTRACT DATA STRUCTURES
ABSTRACT DATA STRUCTURES
2D arrays: A data structure that stores elements in a gridlike format with rows and columns.
Stacks: A data structure that follows the LastInFirstOut (LIFO) principle, where elements are added and removed from the same end.
Queues: A data structure that follows the FirstInFirstOut (FIFO) principle, where elements are added to one end and removed from the other end.
Heaps: A treebased data structure that is used to implement priority queues, where the highest priority element is always at the root.
Linked lists: A data structure that stores elements in nodes, where each node contains a value and a pointer to the next node.
Double linked lists: A linked list where each node has a pointer to both the next and the previous node.
Circular linked lists: A linked list where the last node points to the first node, creating a circular structure.
Pointers: A variable that stores the memory address of another variable.
Binary trees: A treebased data structure where each node has at most two children.
Nonbinary trees: A treebased data structure where each node can have more than two children.
Nodes: An individual element of a data structure, such as a linked list or a tree.
Parent node: A node that has one or more children.
Leftchild node: The child node of a parent that appears to the left.
Rightchild node: The child node of a parent that appears to the right.
Subtree node: A smaller tree that is part of a larger tree.
Root node: The topmost node in a tree.
Leaf node: A node that has no children.
Tree traversal: The process of visiting all nodes in a tree data structure.
Preorder traversal: A type of tree traversal where the root node is visited first, followed by the left subtree and then the right subtree.
Postorder traversal: A type of tree traversal where the left subtree is visited first, followed by the right subtree, and then the root node.
Inorder traversal: A type of tree traversal where the left subtree is visited first, followed by the root node, and then the right subtree.
Recursion: A programming technique where a function calls itself.
Base case: The terminating condition for a recursive function.
Recursive case: The condition where a recursive function continues to call itself.
Stacks: A data structure that follows the LastInFirstOut (LIFO) principle, where elements are added and removed from the same end.
Queues: A data structure that follows the FirstInFirstOut (FIFO) principle, where elements are added to one end and removed from the other end.
Heaps: A treebased data structure that is used to implement priority queues, where the highest priority element is always at the root.
Linked lists: A data structure that stores elements in nodes, where each node contains a value and a pointer to the next node.
Double linked lists: A linked list where each node has a pointer to both the next and the previous node.
Circular linked lists: A linked list where the last node points to the first node, creating a circular structure.
Pointers: A variable that stores the memory address of another variable.
Binary trees: A treebased data structure where each node has at most two children.
Nonbinary trees: A treebased data structure where each node can have more than two children.
Nodes: An individual element of a data structure, such as a linked list or a tree.
Parent node: A node that has one or more children.
Leftchild node: The child node of a parent that appears to the left.
Rightchild node: The child node of a parent that appears to the right.
Subtree node: A smaller tree that is part of a larger tree.
Root node: The topmost node in a tree.
Leaf node: A node that has no children.
Tree traversal: The process of visiting all nodes in a tree data structure.
Preorder traversal: A type of tree traversal where the root node is visited first, followed by the left subtree and then the right subtree.
Postorder traversal: A type of tree traversal where the left subtree is visited first, followed by the right subtree, and then the root node.
Inorder traversal: A type of tree traversal where the left subtree is visited first, followed by the root node, and then the right subtree.
Recursion: A programming technique where a function calls itself.
Base case: The terminating condition for a recursive function.
Recursive case: The condition where a recursive function continues to call itself.