The Internet | A global network of computers and servers that allows electronic communication and data sharing among users.
The World Wide Web (WWW) | A system of interlinked hypertext documents and multimedia content, accessed via the Internet using web browsers and identified by URLs.
Protocol | A set of rules and standards that define how data is transmitted and received over a network, ensuring consistent communication between devices.
Domain Name | A human-readable address (e.g., www.example.com) used to access websites, which corresponds to an IP address.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) | A reference or address used to access resources on the internet, consisting of a protocol (e.g., HTTP), domain name, and path to the resource.
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) | A protocol used for transmitting hypertext over the internet, facilitating the transfer of text, graphics, and multimedia.
HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure) | An extension of HTTP, ensuring secure and encrypted communication between a user’s browser and a web server.
Web Browser | A software application that allows users to access, retrieve, and view documents and other resources on the World Wide Web.
Cookies | Small data files stored on a user's device by websites, used to remember user preferences, login details, and track online activity.
Session Cookies | Temporary cookies that are erased when a user closes their web browser, often used to manage logged-in sessions on websites.
Persistent Cookies | Cookies that remain stored on a user’s device even after the browser is closed, used to remember user preferences and login details for subsequent visits.
HTML (HyperText Markup Language) | The standard markup language used to create and design documents on the World Wide Web, defining the structure and layout of web content.
IP Address (Internet Protocol Address) | A unique numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network, facilitating communication and identification by acting as its current address.
DNS (Domain Name System) | A hierarchical and decentralized system that translates domain names into IP addresses, enabling users to access websites using human-readable addresses.
SECTION 2 | DIGITAL CURRENCY
Digital Currency | A type of currency that is available only in digital form, not in physical form like notes or coins. It exhibits properties similar to physical currencies but allows for instantaneous transactions and borderless transfer-of-ownership.
Blockchain | A distributed ledger technology that records transactions across multiple computers in a secure, transparent, and immutable manner. Each block contains a number of transactions, and once it’s completed, a new block is generated, forming a chain of blocks.
Decentralized | A system where no single entity, like a central authority or institution, has control over the network or its data. Instead, control is distributed among multiple participants or nodes in the network.
Digital Ledger | A digital record used to track transactions and manage assets in a secure and synchronized manner across a network. It can be centralized or decentralized (like blockchain).
Time-Stamped Records | Records or data entries that are marked with a time and date of creation or modification. Time-stamping ensures that the data is authentic and can be verified by tracking when it was added to the digital ledger.
Transactions | A transfer of value or data between two parties. In the context of digital currency and blockchain, transactions often refer to the transfer of digital currency or data between two digital addresses or accounts.
SECTION 3 | CYBER SECURITY
Cyber Security | The practice of protecting systems, networks, and programs from digital attacks aimed at accessing, changing, or destroying sensitive information.
Brute-Force Attack | A cyber attack that involves trying many passwords or passphrases with the hope of eventually guessing correctly.
Data Interception | Unauthorized access and capturing of data during transmission across a network.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack | An attack where multiple compromised systems are used to target a single system causing a Denial of Service (DoS) attack.
Hacking | Unauthorised intrusion into a computer or a network, often with malicious intent to steal data or cause disruption.
Malware | Software designed to disrupt, damage, or gain unauthorized access to a computer system.
Virus | A type of malware that, when executed, replicates by reproducing itself or infecting other programs by modifying them.
Worm | A standalone malware computer program that replicates itself to spread to other computers.
Trojan Horse | A type of malware that disguises itself as something legitimate but is designed to cause harm.
Spyware | Malicious software that secretly monitors and collects user information through the user's internet connection without their knowledge.
Adware | Unwanted software designed to throw advertisements up on your screen, most often within a web browser.
Ransomware | Malicious software that encrypts a user's data and demands payment in return for unlocking the data.
Pharming | A cyber-attack intended to redirect a website's traffic to another, fraudulent site.
Phishing | A type of cyber-attack in which a threat actor deceives recipients into revealing sensitive information, often through deceptive email messages.
Social Engineering | Manipulating individuals into divulging confidential or personal information that may be used for fraudulent purposes.
Access Levels | Different levels of access rights to systems, data, and network resources based on user roles.
Anti-Malware | Software designed to prevent, detect, and remove malicious software on computing devices.
Anti-Virus | Software designed to detect and destroy computer viruses.
Anti-Spyware | Software designed to detect, prevent, and remove spyware, a type of malware that secretly observes and collects user data.
Authentication | The process of verifying the identity of a person or device, typically involving a username and password, to grant access to a system.
Username and Password | A set of credentials used to authenticate a user during the login process, providing secure access to protected systems or data.
Biometrics | Utilizing physical or behavioural characteristics, such as fingerprints or facial recognition, to authenticate and grant access to a user.
Two-Step Verification | An additional layer of security where access is granted after successfully presenting two pieces of evidence to an authentication mechanism, often something they know (password) and something they have (a secure key or a mobile device).
Automating Software Updates | The practice of using automated systems or tools to update software applications, ensuring they are upgraded to the latest versions without manual intervention.
Checking the Spelling and Tone of Communications | Verifying the accuracy and appropriateness of the language used in digital communications to maintain professionalism and avoid phishing attempts.
Checking the URL Attached to a Link | Ensuring the legitimacy and safety of a URL by hovering over or inspecting a hyperlink before clicking, to avoid malicious websites or phishing attempts.
Firewalls | A network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules, acting as a barrier between a trusted and an untrusted network.
Privacy Settings | Options available in software applications and platforms that allow users to control who can access their personal information and how it is shared and used. Privacy settings help users manage their digital footprint and protect their data from unauthorized access.
Proxy Servers | An intermediary server that separates end users from the websites they browse, providing varying levels of functionality, security, and privacy. Proxy servers can be used to filter requests, log web usage, or bypass security and regional restrictions on internet content.
Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Security Protocol | A protocol for establishing secure links between two parties, ensuring that all data passed between them remains private and integral. SSL is commonly used to secure communications between web browsers and servers, safeguarding data transfers, logins, and credit card transactions.