Binary: A numbering system that uses only two digits, 0 and 1, to represent numbers.
Hexadecimal: A numbering system that uses 16 digits, including 0-9 and A-F, to represent numbers. Hexadecimal is often used in computer programming as a shorthand for binary.
Binary Coded Decimal: A way of representing decimal numbers using binary digits. Each decimal digit is represented by a group of four binary digits.
ASCII: A character encoding standard that assigns a unique number to each character in the English language, as well as punctuation marks and other symbols.
Unicode: A character encoding standard that extends ASCII to include characters from other languages and scripts, such as Chinese, Japanese, and Arabic.
Negative Number Representation: The method used to represent negative numbers in a binary system.
Sign and Magnitude: A method of representing negative numbers in binary by using a sign bit and a magnitude bit.
One's complement: A method of representing negative numbers in binary by taking the complement of each bit.
Two's Complement: A method of representing negative numbers in binary by taking the complement of each bit and adding 1.
Binary shift: A bitwise operation that moves the bits of a binary number left or right.
Least significant bit: The rightmost bit in a binary number, which represents the smallest value.
Logic Gates: Electronic circuits that implement Boolean logic functions, such as AND, OR, and NOT.
Registers: Digital electronic devices that store data and operate on it.
Denary: A numbering system that uses base 10, also known as the decimal system.
Overflow Error: A mathematical error that occurs when a calculation exceeds the maximum value that can be stored or represented.
Character Sets: Collections of characters and symbols that are used to represent text in computing.
Machine Code: The language of computer instructions that is directly executable by a computer's CPU. Machine code is written in binary, which consists of 0s and 1s.
Low-level Language: A programming language that is close to machine code and provides minimal abstraction from the underlying hardware. Assembly language is an example of a low-level language.
High-level Language: A programming language that is more abstract than low-level languages and provides more advanced features and constructs for programming. Examples of high-level languages include Python, Java, and C++.
IMAGE REPRESENTATION TERMINOLOGY
Pixel: The smallest unit of a digital image. Pixels are arranged in a grid to form an image, and each pixel contains information about its colour or brightness.
RGB: A colour model that stands for Red, Green, Blue. It is used to represent colours in digital images and consists of three colour channels.
Image Metadata: Information about an image that is stored along with the image data. This can include details such as the date the image was taken, the camera settings used, and location data.
Image Resolution: The number of pixels in an image, typically expressed as the width and height of the image in pixels. Higher resolution images have more pixels and are able to show more detail.
Image Bit Depth/Colour Depth: The number of bits used to represent the colour of each pixel in an image. A higher bit depth means that more colours can be represented.
Megapixel: A unit of measurement for image resolution, equal to one million pixels.
Vector Graphic: A type of digital image that is made up of mathematical paths and shapes, rather than pixels. Vector graphics are scalable and can be resized without losing quality.
SOUND REPRESENTATION TERMINOLOGY
Sound Bit Depth/Resolution: The number of bits used to represent the amplitude of each sample in a digital audio signal. A higher bit depth means that more levels of amplitude can be represented, resulting in greater fidelity and dynamic range.
Sound Sample Rate: The number of samples per second that are used to capture a digital audio signal. The sample rate determines the frequency range that can be accurately represented in the audio signal.
Sound Channels: The number of audio channels in a sound recording, typically either mono (one channel) or stereo (two channels). Additional channels can be used for surround sound or other advanced audio effects.
Microphone: A device used to capture sound and convert it into an electrical signal that can be recorded or transmitted.
Speaker: A device used to convert an electrical audio signal into sound waves that can be heard by the human ear. Speakers come in various sizes and designs, and can be used for a wide range of audio applications.
Data Compression: The process of reducing the size of a digital file by encoding it in a more efficient way. Compression can be achieved through various methods, including lossy and lossless compression.
Lossy Compression: A method of data compression that discards some of the original data in order to achieve a smaller file size. Lossy compression is commonly used for multimedia files such as images and audio, where some loss of quality is acceptable.
Lossless Compression: A method of data compression that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data. Lossless compression is commonly used for text files and other data where even minor loss of information is not acceptable.
Run Length Encoding: A simple compression technique that represents repeated consecutive values in a data stream with a count of how many times the value is repeated.
Huffman Encoding: A lossless compression technique that uses variable-length codes to represent data. The most frequently occurring values are represented with shorter codes, resulting in more efficient compression.
Temporal Redundancy: A type of redundancy in digital data where multiple frames of a video or audio sequence contain similar or identical data. This redundancy can be exploited to achieve better compression.