As its name suggests a database is a base for storing data. With many advantages over the old paper system of storing data, Databases save space(physical storage space, compared to paper records), allow multiple people to access the same data at the same time and queries (similar to filters) can be done to only show the data required.
A database is system that allows us to store data in a structured way using tables and fields, and gives us various means of access to to the data.
What is the difference between a data and information? Data is a collection of facts that are meaningless on their own whereas information puts data into clear understandable context.
What is the difference between a database and a spreadsheet? Yes, when you look at a database it might look very similar to a spreadsheet. Whilst spreadsheets may primarily be used to manipulate data using functions and formula to perform calculations and statistics, whereas databases are primarily used to store data and often have relationships between tables and should allow the user to easily generate queries to view specific data. Databases are often contain much more data than a spreadsheet.
What is the difference between a database and an information system? A database may form part of the backend of an information system. As described on wikipedia ' An Information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical, organizational system designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information. In a sociotechnical perspective, information systems are composed by four components: task, people, structure (or roles), and technology' (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_system) A database will contain data that is used by information systems where-as the information system comprises of the complete system, furthermore may present the data from the database in a way in which it becomes information.
DATABASES MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (DBMS)
Database Management Systems refer to software used to manage the database, for a single database this could include various software and applications the form a database management system or for a very basic database it could simply be one piece of software such as SQLite. The DBMS should provide an interface for data manipulation, it should provide some form of data security and should have some build in data validation methods.
DATA CONSISTENCY AND INTEGRITY
Data consistency is an important factor within setting up and maintaining a database, it generally refers to keeping data that is in the same category in the same format. A person born on the 12th April 2002 in America might list their Date Of Birth as 04/12/02 whereas a person born on the same date in the UK might list their date of birth as 12/04/02 this data inconsistency would cause big problems with the integrity and reliability of the data. Data input methods such as pop up calendars, drop down menus can be used to aid the integrity of data collection and further validation rules can be set up within the database to enhance consistency, for example; a person living in England might say they live in England, Great Briton, UK or The United Kingdom, this would cause issues with the consistency of data held especially if you wanted to run a search for all people from England. To solve this problem drop down menus are often used to narrow the user choices and ensure data is collected in a consistent format.
A series of steps taken to process a single change of data within the database. Examples of a single change could include updating data, deleting data, adding data and more. A series of steps would include things such as ensuing data consistency, running data validation rules, checking data integrity along with completing the change needed.